Saturday, March 14, 2020

Pros And Cons Of Ppps Models Social Policy Essay Essays

Pros And Cons Of Ppps Models Social Policy Essay Essays Pros And Cons Of Ppps Models Social Policy Essay Essay Pros And Cons Of Ppps Models Social Policy Essay Essay X-Chief runing officer FIEDMC ( Dawn Saturday, December 20, 2008 ) PUBLIC Private PARTNERSHIPS Models and Trends in the European Union Writers: Andrea RENDA ( Senior Research Fellow, CEPS ) and Lorna SCHREFLER ( Research Assistant, CEPS ) India hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: // The failure of Metronet REPORT BY THE COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR GENERAL | HC 512 Session 2008-2009 5 June 2009 Department Of Management Sciences Ciit Islamabad

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Ethical Debate on Assisted Suicide Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Ethical Debate on Assisted Suicide - Essay Example This is because they have adequate knowledge to assist persons commit suicide. The ethical debate on assisted suicide is not as recent as most people assume. Examining the principles of medical ethics sheds light on these issues. In the 4th century B.C, the Hippocratic Oath took precedence as guidance to doctor patient relationship. One section of this oath holds that the doctor should not administer, or advice persons to administer lethal drugs. The Platonian philosophical error focused an immense deal on not only the moral but also the psychological (social) and theological (religious) questions on suicide. However, the ancient debates on suicide and assisted suicide for that matter take little account of the self. Instead, these debates focus on the social role and responsibility of the person committing suicide. Religion, on the other hand, takes a rather different approach. In Christianity, for instance, killing is wrong whether done to self or others. The contradiction is that most religions hold the virtue of compassion with endearment. While other parties will use this same virtue to root for assisted suicide, religion still views it as wrong (Gorsuch, 2009). Philosophy, like most religions, acknowledges the human ability to distinguish right from wrong. Upon this foundation, a philosopher may examine the issue of assisted suicide from one feasible approach. This first approach requires that one assumes that all factors held constant, an individual in their right state of mind in whatever decision they make reflect their moral, religious, philosophical and by extension ethical convictions. As such, a person choosing death instead of life must have examined their options and tagged assisted suicide â€Å"best option†. Fernandes (2008) while reflecting on some of the arguments

Monday, February 10, 2020

Intercultural Communication in the Workplace paper Essay

Intercultural Communication in the Workplace paper - Essay Example This is what good actors do and there is a difference between a ‘wooden actor’ and ‘expressive actor’ who conveys whole reams of feelings with expressions, dialogues and inflexion of speech. It is not just enough to be good looking or to have a good voice and while these help to enhance the impact, a poor speaker cannot rely on only these physical traits. â€Å"Language is our principal means of communicating, but it isn’t the only one we use. We communicate whenever we transmit information about ourselves to others and receive such information from them. Our facial expressions, bodily stances, gestures, and movements, even if unconscious, convey information and are part of our communication styles" (Chapter 15, p. 256). In organizations, particularly during team meetings or convocations, an effective speaker manages to get over physical barriers such as plan looks, thick accents and other barriers but still manage to keep people interested, by gaugi ng their mood and changing tonal inflexions. This is a very important issue in intercultural communication, to keep the audience interested and at the same time get your message through. By culture, we mean the accepted norms of social behavior and acceptance of what is right and what is wrong and what is ethical. To give an example, a woman smoking in US or Europe would not be noticed but a similar action in Arab countries would raise a lot of attention. Organizations such as Microsoft, Ford, GM, Toyota, British Petroleum and many others that operate globally need to adapt to various cultures and understand these norms yet remain committed to their core values. This is an area that is best handled by effective intercultural communication and the skill is in using an inclusive method where the message blends across cultures and brings a sense of uniformity. This requires skill and experience and simple language, checked for

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Marketing strategies Essay Example for Free

Marketing strategies Essay Types of strategies Marketing strategies may differ depending on the unique situation of the individual business. However there are a number of ways of categorizing some generic strategies. A brief description of the most common categorizing schemes is presented below: Strategies based on market dominance In this scheme, firms are classified based on their market share or dominance of an industry. Typically there are four types of market dominance strategies: Leader Challenger Follower Nicher According to Shaw, Eric (2012). Marketing Strategy: From the Origin of the Concept to the Development of a Conceptual Framework. Journal of Historical Research in Marketing., there is a framework for marketing strategies. Market introduction strategies At introduction, the marketing strategist has two principle strategies to choose from: penetration or niche (47). Market growth strategies  In the early growth stage, the marketing manager may choose from two additional strategic alternatives: segment expansion (Smith, Ansoff) or brand expansion (Borden, Ansoff, Kerin and Peterson, 1978) (48). Market maturity strategies In maturity, sales growth slows, stabilizes and starts to decline. In early  maturity, it is common to employ a maintenance strategy (BCG), where the firm maintains or holds a stable marketing mix (48). Market decline strategies At some point the decline in sales approaches and then begins to exceed costs. And not just accounting costs, there are hidden costs as well; as Kotler (1965, p. 109) observed: No financial accounting can adequately convey all the hidden costs. At some point, with declining sales and rising costs, a harvesting strategy becomes unprofitable and a divesting strategy necessary (49). Early marketing strategy concepts were: Borden’s â€Å"marketing mix†Ã‚  In his classic Harvard Business Review (HBR) article of the marketing mix, Borden (1964) credits James Culliton in 1948 with describing the marketing executive as a decider and a mixer of ingredients. This led Borden, in the early 1950s, to the insight that what this mixer of ingredients was deciding upon was a marketing mix' (34). Smith’s â€Å"differentiation and segmentation strategies† In product differentiation, according to Smith (1956, p. 5), a firm tries bending the will of demand to the will of supply. That is, distinguishing or differentiating some aspect(s) of its marketing mix from those of competitors, in a mass market or large segment, where customer preferences are relatively homogeneous (or heterogeneity is ignored, Hunt, 2011, p. 80), in an attempt to shift its aggregate demand curve to the left (greater quantity sold for a given price) and make it more inelastic (less amenable to substitutes). With segmentation, a firm recognizes that it faces multiple demand curves, because customer preferences are heterogeneous, and focuses on serving one or more specific target segments within the overall market (35). Dean’s â€Å"skimming and penetration strategies† With skimming, a firm introduces a product with a high price and after milking the least price sensitive segment, gradually reduces price, in a stepwise fashion, tapping effective demand at each price level. With penetration pricing a firm continues its initial low price from introduction  to rapidly capture sales and market share, but with lower profit margins than skimming (37). Forrester’s â€Å"product life cycle (PLC)† The PLC does not offer marketing strategies, per se; rather it provides an overarching framework from which to choose among various strategic alternatives (38). There are also corporate strategy concepts like: Andrews’ â€Å"SWOT analysis† Although widely used in marketing strategy, SWOT (also known as TOWS) Analysis originated in corporate strategy. The SWOT concept, if not the acronym, is the work of Kenneth R. Andrews who is credited with writing the text portion of the classic: Business Policy: Text and Cases (Learned et al., 1965) (41). Ansoff’s â€Å"growth strategies† The most well-known, and least often attributed, aspect of Igor Ansoff’s Growth Strategies in the marketing literature is the term product-market. The product-market concept results from Ansoff juxtaposing new and existing products with new and existing markets in a two by two matrix (41-42). Porter’s â€Å"generic strategies† Porter generic strategies strategy on the dimensions of strategic scope and strategic strength. Strategic scope refers to the market penetration while strategic strength refers to the firm’s sustainable competitive advantage. The generic strategy framework (porter 1984) comprises two alternatives each with two alternative scopes. These are Differentiation and low-cost leadership each with a dimension of Focus-broad or narrow. ** Product differentiation ** Cost leadership ** Market segmentation * Innovation strategies — This deals with the firms rate of the new product development and business model innovation. It asks whether the company is on the cutting edge of technology and business innovation. There are three types: ** Pioneers ** Close followers ** Late followers * Growth strategies — In this scheme we ask the question, â€Å"How should the firm grow?†. There are a number of different ways of answering that question, but the most common gives four answers: Horizontal integration Vertical integration Diversification Intensification These ways of growth are termed as organic growth. Horizontal growth is whereby a firm grows towards acquiring other businesses that are in the same line of business for example a clothing retail outlet acquiring a food outlet. The two are in the retail establishments and their integration lead to expansion. Vertical integration can be forward or backward. Forward integration is whereby a firm grows towards its customers for example a food manufacturing firm acquiring a food outlet. Backward integration is whereby a firm grows towards its source of supply for example a food outlet acquiring a food manufacturing outlet. A more detailed scheme uses the categoriesMiles, Raymond (2003). Organizational Strategy, Structure, and Process. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4840-3.: Prospector Analyzer Defender Reactor Marketing warfare strategies This scheme draws parallels between marketing strategies and military strategies. BCG’s â€Å"growth-share portfolio matrix† Based on his work with experience curves (that also provides the rationale for Porter’s low cost leadership strategy), the growth-share matrix was originally created by Bruce D. Henderson, CEO of the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) in 1968 (according to BCG history). Throughout the 1970s, Henderson expanded upon the concept in a series of short (one to three page) articles in the BCG newsletter titled Perspectives (Henderson, 1970, 1972, 1973, 1976a, b). Tremendously popular among large multi-product firms, the BCG portfolio matrix was popularized in the marketing literature by Day (1977) (45).

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Ipswich Shellfish Delivers Fresh Lobster :: essays research papers

Ipswich Shellfish Company has a very unique marketing channel and strategy. There business is very specialized and their product characteristics will vary by fish, but not by quality. Ipswich is very confident that they can deliver fresh seafood within 24 hours around the world. Another product characteristic that they offer is a extensive variety of exotic seafood that people across the world can now enjoy. Some channel conflicts that they might run into is that they will deliver to anyone for the right price. This is much easier said then done but Ipswich delivers. To do this they need to have good relationships with their shipping affiliates. If their product goes bad then they lose money. Another problem that they might try to avoid would be sending out substandard seafood. If they do and their buyer tries to back out of the sale, they again will lose money. They are also facing rival businesses that must make their prices competitive and quality one grade better then other’s. It sounds like to me that Ipswich Shellfish must run a very tight business to survive. They are taking risks at many points and are relying for those risks to make profit. Therefore I would have to say that at this time it will not hinder their business to stay away from integration. This definitely will reduce the possibilities of extreme growth within their company, but also will reduce the possibilities of extreme losses that Ipswich could take. This way they are able to keep themselves out of the restaurant business, and out of the fishing business where they would have to sink a lot of money into something that they are not accustomed to. Intermodal coordination is key for this company to be able to distribute in such vast areas in such a small time. If they cannot coordinate between air carriers, land carriers and sea carriers then there product will go to waste. But on the other hand once they acquire the talent to coordinate their distribution channels they are able to serve many more markets and increase the volume of their sales. Being proficient with their shipping partners will enable them to gain security of their product. Without these companies Ipswich could not deliver shellfish very far, they would die within 24 hours if not properly cared for. This cost is great for Ipswich but essential in their growth process.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Food And Drug Administration On Tobacco Essay

Due to the remarkable number of premature deaths caused by smoking during the period of 1995-1999[1], the government agencies of America, especially the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) made several attempts in regulating tobacco and tobacco products. Lots of laws have been made in order to solve this problem. There was an attempt in issuing additional tax on each stick of the cigarette. However, people who smoke ranging from ‘minor’ smokers to heavy smokers would still continue to buy cigarettes regardless of its price. Some rules recommended the limitation of people’s access to tobacco products, as well as restrictions on the marketing of these products to minors. Do there need to be changes in existing laws? Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act were introduced in 2007[2].   This Act though abundant of ‘good laws’ is not strong. Some amendments should be made on the laws involved. How should those changes be approached and effected? Lots of amendments have been made on the laws. Some attempts were on the regulation of tobacco products through disclosure, annual registration, inspection, record keeping, and user fee requirements. Others approaches involve (1)limiting product sales on licensed drugstores; (2)prohibiting product sales through face-to-face transactions in retail outlets; (3) establishing a minimum age greater than 18 years of age for product purchases; (4) warning label and advertising requirements. These attempts would be well effected through thorough and consistent public dissemination.[3] Is there an impact on other government agencies? Identify the agencies impacted.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The impact of this change is not only on the government agencies. It would also affect other organizations such as in the world of business, advertisement, etc. The government agencies are the Federal Trade Commission, Federal Communications Commission, National Institute of Health, Peace Corps and as well as The White House. How should it be resolved?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Agreements should be made among affected agencies in order to resolve the impact of regularizing the circulation of tobacco. Others should give sacrifices for the sake of the health of the majority.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The best suggestion to solve this conflict is to develop a product that would totally replace tobacco products or at least replace nicotine-free ingredients for cigarettes. References: Bonnie, Richard J., Kathleen R. Stratton, Robert B. Wallace. (2007). Ending the Tobacco   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Problem: A Blueprint for the Nation. Washington: The National Academy Press. Hickmann, Meredith A. (2003).The Food and Drug Administration (FDA). New York: Nova   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Publishers. Kessler, David A. MD. (2000). A Question of Intent: A Great American Battle with a Deadly   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Industry. Food and Drug Administration:Public Affairs. Redhead, Stephen and Jody Feder. (December 3, 2004). FDA Regulation of Tobacco   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Products: A Policy and Legal Analysis. Retrieved   from   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   govdocs/crs/permalink/meta-crs-8198:1 on 13 April 2008. Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People. Washington: Diane Publishing ,[1997]. Taking Action to Reduce Tobacco Use. Washington: [1]  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Andrew C. von Eschenbach, M.D., Statement on H.R. 1108, Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, (October 3, 2007),   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚, Accessed April 13, 2008. [2]  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Richard J. Bonnie, Kathleen R. Stratton, Robert B. Wallace, Ending the Tobacco Problem: A Blueprint for the Nation, Washington: The   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   National Academy Press, 126. [3]  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   C. Stephen Redhead and Jody Feder, â€Å"FDA Regulation of Tobacco Products: A Policy and Legal Analysis,† (December 3, 2004),, Accessed 13 April 2008.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People (Washington: Diane Publishing ,[1997]), 278 – 282.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Production Reduce Global Warming Example For Free - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1142 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Ecology Essay Type Cause and effect essay Tags: Global Warming Essay Did you like this example? INTRODUCTION Global warming is defined as temperature increase world wide due to green house gases emission and cause deletion to ozone layer [1]. It mainly occurred due to the burning of fuel, Green house gases include chloro- fluorocarbon (CFC), carbon dioxide, nitrous dioxide, methane, sulphur dioxide. Carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxides are the major gases that cause global warming, co2 and so2 are mainly emitted from the burning of fossil fuel. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Production Reduce Global Warming Example For Free" essay for you Create order Bio fuels are replaced for petroleum or fuels from fossils and they emit very low amount of sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide [2]. The bio-fuels are also used as the either partially or totally substitute in vehicle engines [3]. BACKGROUND Bio-fuels are the fuels obtain from plants ( And these fuels are gaseous, liquids or solids. Liquid bio fuels are categorised into bio diesel, bio alcohol and bio Ethanol[4].ethanol is bio-fuel, is mainly produced from corn while alcohol distillation. Ethanol is a produced more from sugar cane and maize as compare to the corn [5]. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF CASE: (Are bio-fuels a feasible option? By Jose Goldemberg, Patricia Guardabassi) According to the case, Brazil is one of the highest producers of ethanol from sugarcane (Goldemberg, 2007).Ethanol is a good alternative for gasoline (Moreira and Goldemberg, 1999),ethanol produced in brazil from a sugar cane can be used as a substitute for gasoline(Mathews, 2007), If ethanol is from agricultural product it does not contain any impurities like sulphur dioxide which commonly found in fossil fuels and proper practices of agriculture reduce green house gases(Goldemberg, 2007), united state states producing ethanol from maize leads to deforestation (Laurence (2007) ),reduction of greenhouse gases cannot reduced only by decreasing but also decreased by environmental indicator factor like deforestation and reducing ash (Searchinger et al. (2008)).when compare with gasoline produced from maize and sugarcane ,maize emits 18%less CO2 where as from sugarcane reduce about 91%less CO2(Goldemberg, 2007).the world 6%of land is used for cultivating crops, so bio-fuels results pri ce of crops increased(FAO, 2007).but not all bio-fuels have same impact on prices of food ,the ethanol produced from sugar in brazil have no impact on sugar prices (Goldemberg, 2007).The larger amount of ethanol is exported from southern hemisphere countries like brazil, which has good agricultural resources like land and climatic conditions suitable for sugar cane used for ethanol production(Mathews, 2007),so production from sugarcane decrease deforestation( Searchinger et al. (2008)). The use of bio-fuels decreases pollution, deforestation and also no effect on the price of crops. Case study about Biodiesel from microalgae According to the articles biodiesel is also produced micro algae .Micro algae are driven from sunlight cell that is used for the production bio-fuels, foods by utilization of carbon dioxide (Walter et al., 2005), it produces different types of renewable fuels. micro algae can be obtained from hydro carbons, lipids (Banerjee et al., 2002; Metzger and Largeau, 2005; Guschina and Harwood, 2006), Methane is produced from algal biomass by algal digestion (Spolaore et al 2005).biodiesel from liquid algal biomass (Gavrilescuand Chisti, 2005) algal biomass can be produced majorly by two process raceway pond and photo synthesis bio reactor; the raceway ponds is 0.3m diameter circular pounds having pure water is used for biomass production and in photosynthetic bioreactor production consist of an array of glass or transparent plastic tubes and photo bioreactor is used for capture of sunlight and it produce more biomass as compare to the race pound in a hectare. The us government is sponsorin g for the study of biomass production of race way pond (Sheehan et al., 1998), fuels produced from the algae government kept regulations such as ASTM bio diesel standard6751(Knothe, 2006) and EU have certain standards for biodiesel used for transportation such as STANDARD EN 14214 and STANDARD EN 14213(Knothe, 2006).the cost of production by photosynthetic bio reachtor is cheap compare to race way pound and the cost of biomass per kg is $2.9 to$3.5(Humphreys, 1991; Molina,Grima et al., 2003). So production cost can be decreased by using genetically modified and photo engineering technologies, so production of biodiesel from micro algae can be used as alternative for fossil fuels. Comparison; Both the cases are related to production of biofuel in terms of economical and environmental factors, In the case about ethanol from and biodiesel from algae are used for the substitute for the fossil fuels. Majorly Brazil is using sugar cane for the ethanol production (Goldemberg, 2007)where as now US is developing technology for the production biodiesel from biomass(Sheehan et al., 1998).Ethanol and biodiesel reduce sulphur dioxide .ethanol from sugar cane decrease deforestation and in the case of bio diesel from algae produced from waste water treatment such as photosynthetic bioreactor and race way ponds, brazil have favorable climate for the production of sugar and for the algae is suite for all types of climates and mainly from waste water but it is in experimental level and no company producing from algae, Ethanol produced from the sugar cane decrease 91%of co2(Goldemberg, 2007), But biodiesel production from biomass by use of co 2 which is produced by power plants using fossil fuels(Sawayama et al., 1995; Yun et al., 1997). Ethanol production leading to the deforestation but in the case of biomass production only by sunlight and water, ethanol produced from sugar cane economically efficient but in case of production of biodiesel it is very costlier. Bio fuel from crops has negative effect like food prices. Ethanol produced from sugar is used as gasoline and methane is produced from biomass .ethanol can be produced by Conclusion There are many benefits for the environment, economy and consumers in using bio-fuels. Bio-oil can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels to generate heat, power and/or chemicals. Bio-fuels are made from biomass through thermochemical processes such as pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction and supercritical fluid extraction or biochemical processes. Biochemical conversion of biomass is completed through alcoholic fermentation to produce liquid fuels and anaerobic digestion or fermentation to produce biogas. In wood derived pyrolysis oil, specific oxygenated compounds are present in relatively large amounts. Basically, the recovery of pure compounds from the complex bio-oil is technically feasible but probably economically unattractive because of the high costs for recovery of the chemical and its low concentration in the oil. Ethanol, bio-diesel and bio-gas are the most useful fuels from agricultural sources. Ethanol demand is expected to more than double in the next ten ye ars. For the supply to be available to meet this demand, new technologies must be moved from the laboratories to commercial reality. The world ethanol production is about 60% by feedstock from sugar crops. Most of the bio-diesel that is currently made uses soybean oil, methanol and an alkaline catalyst. The high value of soybean oil as a food product makes production of a cost effective fuel very challenging. However, there are large amounts of low cost oils and fats such as restaurant waste and animal fats that could be converted to bio-diesel.